Garry Lowe, bassist for Big Sugar, dead at 65

Garry Lowe, bassist for legendary band Big Sugar, passed away Saturday, July 7, at the age of 65. He made fast friends with Johnson, himself a bassist and huge reggae fan. Lowe was a featured player on nine of Big Sugar’s albums, from 1992’s self-titled release through 2003’s Hit & Run. A gentleman and a player. Gone too soon. I met a woman the other day who sings for a livin’ and she told me ‘no…
— The Trews (@thetrews) July 7, 2018

We just learned of the passing of musician Garry Lowe of @Big_Sugar_Music.The big man on the bass. May you Rest In Peace Garry.
— Lowest Of The Low (@LowestOfTheLow) July 8, 2018

Garry Lowe was a fantastic bass player and was always a very affable dude. Z98.9 Red Deer 30th Bday Party. We were blessed to be on life’s journey together. He quickly became a respected and sought-after bassist in the city’s reggae scene, often playing with bands at the Bamboo Club on Queen. Condolences to his family and to the guys in Big Sugar @Big_Sugar_Music RIP Garry Lowe
— Danko Jones (@dankojones) July 7, 2018

#RIP #GarryLowe of Big Sugar.
— THE ROCK SOURCE (@RockSourceMag) July 7, 2018

RIP Garry Lowe of @Big_Sugar_Music. “He was my greatest musical collaborator, our wisest elder. We had a blast playing with Alex Lifeson at Danforth Music Hall…
— Big Sugar (@Big_Sugar_Music) December 5, 2017

Tributes began pouring in Saturday morning as the news spread of Lowe’s death.  By 1994, Lowe had joined Big Sugar and is featured on some of the band’s biggest and best loved songs. Woke up this morning to the sad news that Garry Lowe has passed into the next…beautiful soul, beautiful music RIP. Lowe was a founding member of Culture Shock, one of Toronto’s most popular reggae bands. Our condolences go out to all of Garry’s family, friends and fans everywhere. He’d fought cancer for two years, privately, according to the band.
— Big Sugar (@Big_Sugar_Music) November 10, 2017

“We lost our dear brother and sweet friend Garry this morning,” said Big Sugar singer Gordie Johnson. Please remember Garry Lowe in all your thoughts and prayers.”
Lowe, a native of Kingston, Jamaica, moved to Canada in 1976. We were blessed to know him and share his music. — The Miss Emily (@TheMissEmily) July 7, 2018

The band’s official statement ends with this:
“Rally around the Lion.” When Big Sugar went on hiatus in 2003, Lowe formed the Truth and Rights Revue with fellow Big Sugar member Mojah, a band that played together for a short time and released one album. A huge talent and mega loss for our Canadian music scene. Nov 10th Big Sugar and The TrewsW/ special guests Iron Buffalo. Garry Lowe is calling all the youth! Among his final performances, Lowe played alongside his friends in Big Sugar and Alex Lifeson of Rush at the Danforth Music Hall in December.
Garry Lowe, bassist for Big Sugar, dead at 65

Something’s On: Strictly Hip takes on Phantom Power at the Horseshoe

Something’s On: Strictly Hip takes on Phantom Power at the Horseshoe
They’ve even recreated Live Between Us, complete with stage banter. H.: The show at The Kee in August is something we’ve been looking forward to for months. J. This time, it’s Phantom Power, front to back, note for note. This time, they’re playing one of the best-known venues for outdoor shows in the country: Muskoka’s Kee to Bala on Friday, Aug. Hearing songs that aren’t heard often like “Save The Planet” or “The Rules” will get a smile and a fist in the air. So so cool.#thehip #gorddownie
— The Strictly Hip (@TheStrictlyHip) May 27, 2018

And after this show, the band has a few weeks to prepare for the second in the FamilyBand series of shows, fundraisers for the Downie-Wenjack Fund organized by Hoyle and Rob Ferreira, formerly of Courage for Gord and the guy responsible for pre-show parties throughout Ontario during the Hip’s final tour. It’s special for so many reasons. H.: The Tragically Hip fandom is unique in that the band’s catalog is universally appreciated. A year after the first-of-its-kind collaboration with an orchestra, and just months after their first appearance there in their more than 20 years together, Strictly Hip are returning to Toronto’s Horseshoe Tavern on July 28th. J. We've been hunkered down in the Voodoo Lounge rehearsal space. It’s been a busy year for the Buffalo-based dual-national band: There was the aforementioned sold-out show with the Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra on the eve of Canada’s 150th birthday; travels through the U.S. It’s both delicate and bombastic. H. Thinking that its under-discussed how important Gord S and Paul's vocals are to @thehipdotcom "sound". Phantom Power gives us some big radio hits and some under the radar fan favourites. Catharines respond to any song in a way that was surprising? H. : The album was released in July of 1998 so celebrating the twentieth anniversary seems appropriate and worthwhile. : I think Phantom Power is incredibly important to The Hip’s artistic growth. How do the Phantom Power shows prepare lead in to the Kee show next month? : There’s an ethereal feel to “Escape Is At Hand For The Travellin’ Man” that is difficult to capture. Hip fans always react positively to this song. : I saw an interview once where Gord Downie paraphrases Henry David Thoreau, “Read a book as deliberately as it was written.” That is our approach to learning and performing a Hip record. Especially @paullanglois101 counter vocals. J. Did the audience in St. In prep for upcoming #PhantomPower album shows… re-examining details and nuances. We’re so excited to be sharing the stage with two incredible Indigenous artists, DJ Shub and My Friend The Moon. 17. J. What’s special about Phantom Power? This summer, it’s all about Phantom Power, The Tragically Hip’s fifth album and the follow-up to the bombshell that is Trouble at the Henhouse. We attempt to be accurate as possible with due respect and honour to its creators. Steve Berlin’s production is a big departure from the previous record, Trouble At The Henhouse. How has the band been preparing for these shows — the one in St Catharines and this one in Toronto? J.H. It’s a reason for Hip fans to gather and celebrate what The Hip have given us all. Typically, when Strictly Hip plays, it’s a mix of old favourites and deep cuts, songs everyone knows and a few surprises — earlier this year, they even picked up the Dallas Green – Gord Downie beauty “Sleeping Sickness.”

But they also do incredible full album recreations, usually of Up to Here, Road Apples and/or Fully Completely. Which song posed the biggest challenge? Show info at
— The Strictly Hip (@TheStrictlyHip) June 28, 2018

Why Phantom Power? The greatest enjoyment? J.H. This year, in honour of Phantom Power’s 20th anniversary, the band has worked diligently to master this album as well. Final preparations for Saturday's Phantom Power show at Warehouse Concert Hall in St. Catharines. and parts of Ontario and even a few trips out to Vegas to perform for hockey fans eager for a little taste of Canada’s band in the middle of the desert — including during the Knights’ unfathomable run for the Cup. The opportunity to learn and create friendships is the whole reason behind Familyband Benefit Concerts. Catharines, was to a capacity crowd that loved every minute. My bandmates have never been to Muskoka so I’m excited for them to experience a little of the north. It’ll be at least the second time this summer the band has played Phantom Power in full; the first one, in St. Jeremy Hoyle, the Canadian-born lead singer of the band, pulled back the curtain to shed a little light on the band’s inspiration for their show at the ‘Shoe on July 28.

Was this the first rock song to celebrate motorcycles?

4. Neil Young, “Motorcycle Man”
Not the same as the Sailcat song. Remember that you can’t copyright a song title. It appears to be the first motorcycle song ever to chart. When the subject of rock and motorcycles come up, the usual set of titles come up. Anyone planning to make the July 13th ride to Port Dover this week might want to create a playlist–if you haven’t already, of course. But if you want to really impress everyone, include this song: “Black Demin Trousers and Motorcycle Boots” by The Cheers. Written by the famous songwriting team of Jerry Lieber and Mike Stoller, the single was released on Capitol in 1955, one week before James Dean died. You get the point. Sailcat, “Motorcycle Mama” (1972)
Twenty years later, the Sugarcubes turned this into an alt-rock hit. The lyrics don’t mention motorcycles explicitly, but that doesn’t matter. Steppenwolf, “Born to the Wild” (1969)
The quintessential biker song thanks to its inclusion in the 1969 movie, Easy Rider. Read more here. 5. For example:
1. There are more here. 3. Motley Crue, Kick Start My Heart (1989)
More of a metaphor than anything, really, but those opening guitar chords make it a good biker track. 2. Montrose, “Bad Motor Scooter”
Let’s assume that Sammy Hagar was downplaying the hog this woman was actually riding.
Was this the first rock song to celebrate motorcycles?

How can you not love a wrestler who wins a match by doing a Michael Jackson moonwalk?

We’ve all see our share of pro wrestling, but I’ve never seen a move like this. ••• (🎥Via: Twitter/ @sportsnation)
A post shared by TSN (@tsn_official) on Jul 7, 2018 at 12:01pm PDT

  Yes, it’s all fake, but still… (Via Tom)

A moonwalk DDT that’s smooth as a criminal!
How can you not love a wrestler who wins a match by doing a Michael Jackson moonwalk?

Random music news for Monday, July 9, 2018

On this day in 1962, the Starfish Prime nuclear tests were conducted. Ever hear of this band called Sado Opera? So how’s it going? Michael Jackon’s last doctor alleges his father Joe “chemically castrated Michael” so he kept a higher-pitched voice. When it comes to music news for July 9, 2018…

What is this thing that Donald Trump has with Elton John? Why are people suddenly putting their iPhones and iPads in the freezer? The US military actually shot nukes INTO ORBIT to see what would happen when they detonated. Prepare yourself. (Hint: Don’t do this.)
Brendon Urie of Panic! Not great, really. At the Disco has come out as pansexual. No surprise here: a British football song is now storming the charts. If you’re a fan of Marilyn Manson, you’ll want to take a look at this. The current hero is Drake. Gorillaz ended a set early when rapper Del the Funky Homosapien fell off the stage. This is a good look at at the contributions of the riot grrrl movement. Ex-blink-182 man Tom DeLonge continues to get praise for his UFO research. In Iran, they can arrest you for dancing on Instagram. A Led Zeppelin musical? That’s the rumour. Americans are streaming more music than ever. Tidal has now been around for three years. It’s a bit obsessive, really. A big subjective really (and unduly negative), but what do you think about this of the worst bands of the 90s? And you gotta wonder what Elton thinks of all this. Monday timesuck: some new 360-degree video from Metallica.
Random music news for Monday, July 9, 2018

New Music from the Inbox for July 9, 2018: RXPTRS, Karmic, We The Kings, & More!

The track comes from their upcoming album, due out next month. “Warriors” is a female empowerment anthem with a pounding clap-and-stomp rhythm and a cheeky vocal aesthetic. Listen:

Artist: CAPPA
Song: “Tension”
Album: Single

Philadelphia-born singer-songwriter CAPPA has a unique pop sound. Watch:

Artist: Eat Defeat
Song: “Nothing’s Wrong”
Album: Single

This fun, upbeat pop-punk song from Leeds band Eat Defeat juxtaposes its cheery music and goofy guitar solo with extra bleak emotional lyrics. Artist: RXPTRS
Song: “Bound”
Album: Single

The first single from Bristol-based quintet RXPTRS combines grit and melodic lines. Watch:

Artist: Karmic
Song: “Warriors”
Album: Single

With a bold and blazing sound, Karmic’s latest demands attention. Watch:

Artist: We The Kings
Song: “On My Love”
Album: Single

Florida pop-punk band We The Kings recently released their sixth album. Their self-titled EP will be released next month. Listen:

  Her music is bubbly and quite catchy. This song is upbeat and fun. Formed earlier this year, the group blends hardcore, grunge, and hard rock into their music. Watch:

Artist: Sauropod
Song: “Ripping”
Album: Single

Oslo-based trio Sauropod showcases their signature high-octane, grunge-tinged rock in their latest single.
New Music from the Inbox for July 9, 2018: RXPTRS, Karmic, We The Kings, & More!

Can you use music to change the taste of wine? A guide to the art of pairing wine with the right music.

And when United threatened to drop tomato juice from its beverage selections, there was a passenger revolt.]
This led me down a deep rabbit hole of scientific inquiry into why food and drink taste differently when you’re in an airplane at a high altitude. After his fourth serving — I’m guessing, I couldn’t keep track — I was craving one myself. I took a sip. On a recent long-haul flight, the man across the aisle ordered up glass after glass of the stuff. And if so, what would I want to talk about? Here’s my appearance on AM 640 Global Radio. But I also discovered something more. Then I slipped on the headphones and took a few more nibbles. Fascinating. When dinner service commenced, I pulled out the noise-cancelling headphones, but didn’t put them on. “Let’s conduct an experiment in pairing wine with the right music.”
Keep reading. I find it too strong, too acidic and in no way refreshing. I tasted everything on my tray, noticing all the sensations and spicing. This was strange, given that I never, ever drink tomato juice. A few weeks later, I got a call from Noble Wines. Very good, in fact. The drone of the engines also affects our sense of taste. Firing up the in-flight wifi, I learned that the lower cabin pressure (the equivalent of an elevation of about 6,000 ft) and the low humidity impact our senses of smell and taste. [NOTE: Lufthansa serves 53,000 gallons of tomato juice on its flights annually. “I have just the thing,” I said, remembering my tomato juice experience. [This was my weekly column for – AC]
It all started with a glass of tomato juice. Compare that with 50,000 gallons of beer. On a German airline! When the flight attendant next came by, I asked for a glass (as did the guy next to me). Maybe I was unconsciously wondering what my fellow passenger was getting out of his experience. This I could test immediately. In order to give food any taste, it’s over-salted and over-spiced (except for curry, which, for some reason, tastes just the same on the ground as it does in the sky). It tasted… good. Not Caesars or anything with alcoholic content, but straight Heinz juice. Would I be interested in hosting some kind of event involving wine and music? So why the sudden urge? The difference was remarkable: The sauce was far too salty but the fruit was suddenly more, well, fruity and the chocolate sweeter.
A guide to the art of pairing wine with the right music. Can you use music to change the taste of wine?

Weed Kings: The Tragically Hip’s corporate legal marijuana investment

The Toronto Star covered a special event held by Newstrike and hosted by three members of the Hip. Before Gord Downie died, the Tragically Hip were asked if they’d like a piece of the action regarding the upcoming legalization of marijuana. As investors in Newstrike and its weed division, Up Cannabis, the Hip have also become brand ambassadors for this soon-to-be-legal recreational substance. Read the rest of the article here. But the big reveal of the (ahem) joint brand name, Up Cannabis, and several planned weed strains named for Tragically Hip tunes — “Eldorado,” “Gems,” “50MC,” “Grace” and “Morning Moon” — came this week amidst a lavish overnight party for around 200 invited guests, including many music-industry folk and online “influencers” and a handful of media, myself included, thrown on the combination organic farm and event space known as the New Farm outside Creemore. The band announced it had entered into a partnership, co-signed by Downie, with Brantford-based cannabis producer Newstrike in May of last year. One really couldn’t script a more “of the moment” Canadian story: The Tragically Hip has quietly re-emerged into the public eye for the first time since frontman Gord Downie’s death from brain cancer last October, and broken an almost-total radio silence imposed for the past three years to talk about … marijuana. Also check out this video interview.
Weed Kings: The Tragically Hip’s corporate legal marijuana investment

A history of basic guitar effects

A history of basic guitar effects
The passing of Glenn Snoddy—the Nashville recording engineer who made an early fuzz box in the ’60s and died this May—set off a round of questions and debates about who exactly was the inventor of the fuzz effect. But the affair got us thinking that we should celebrate the creation and early uses of other effects that revolutionized the electric guitar. Learn about tremolo, vibrato, reverb, and echo here. If you’re a guitarist, chances are you have a row or two of pedals in front of you: fuzzes, wah-wahs, delays, reverbs and so on. Ever wonder where these devices came from in the first place? This time out, we’re probing four classic effects that first caught attention for their occurrence in the natural world, or for musician’s ability to produce them by simple mechanical means—driving the innovators of the pre-rock’n’roll era to invent ways of producing them on demand. The answers prove murky, depending on whether you’re talking about the effect itself, the fuzz pedal, or whose stories you choose to believe. Let’s go to for a history lesson. In this installment of a new mini-series, we’ll look at four examples of groundbreaking first effects—the artists that used them, the recordings on which they were first or most influentially heard, and the ways in which they originated and evolved.

The next development that’s going to tear us away from our smartphone screens

But depending on how these technologies develop, a digital ecosystem that demands less of our eyes could be better for everyone — less immersive, less addictive, more conducive to multitasking, less socially awkward, and perhaps even a salve for our politics and social relations. We’re addicted to our screens. I’ve heard some very smart people talking about the next frontier–and it involves audio. This could be a nightmare; we may simply add these new devices to our screen-addled lives. Anything to escape boredom. Then each company unveiled something else: Software to help you use your phone a lot less. Americans spend three to four hours a day looking at their phones. Leaving at home gives me the shakes. For much of the last decade, a technology industry ruled by smartphones has pursued a singular goal of completely conquering our eyes. It’s to the point where the new version of iOS will have a feature designed to cut down on your screen time. This story from the Sydney Morning Herald (originally from the New York Times) talks about the notion of “peak screen” and the kind of tech that’s coming next. We have hit what I call Peak Screen. The dog knows it, too. There is a reason tech companies are feeling this tension between making phones better and worrying they are too addictive. It has given us phones with ever-bigger screens and phones with unbelievable cameras, not to mention virtual reality goggles and several attempts at camera-glasses. So tech giants are building the beginning of something new: a less insistently visual tech world, a digital landscape that relies on voice assistants, headphones, watches and other wearables to take some pressure off our eyes. Global smartphone sales are plateauing for an obvious reason: Nearly anyone who can afford one has one, and increasingly there are questions about whether we are using our phones too much and too mindlessly. Keep reading. It’s difficult to do anything else when you’re deep into your screen. Now that smartphone usage has reached a critical level of penetration into society, the tech world needs to find a new way to keep us hooked–or a new way of hijacking our attention. I can’t be in line anywhere longer than three seconds before I’ve got my iPhone in my hand, looking for some kind of dopamine hit. I can’t even enough sitting at the dog park for longer than a minute before my phone’s out. Tech has captured nearly all visual capacity. Once deployed, screens–phones, tablets, laptops, computers–all demand our full attention. At Google’s and Apple’s recent developer conferences, executives showed how much more irresistible they were making our phones.
The next development that’s going to tear us away from our smartphone screens

Male rage in rock music: Things have changed

This article from The Atlantic looks at how male rage in rock music is going through a change. Because music is always downstream from society, it’s always evolving to reflect what’s going on in our lives. Keep reading. By some measures the last top dog that rock ever bred, the California group is often spoken of as an embarrassing artifact of George W. It’s worth the read. If angry men loom large in the genre’s history, it’s not because they have tapped into some elemental well of gender-specific sentiment. Instead, they have often made their mark by expanding the boundaries of what anger or sadness, or anger and sadness together, can sound like for guys. At the end of 2017, U2’s Bono made one of his periodic pronouncements about the state of rock and roll. Bush–era cultural crudeness. Rage is at the heart of it.” He was airing the sort of conventional wisdom you most commonly hear ranted from a barstool: Rock and roll is rooted in virility, and the genre’s decline in popularity represents a worrisome triumph of the feminine. “There are some good things about that, but hip-hop is the only place for young male anger at the moment—and that’s not good … In the end, what is rock & roll? Though such gender anxieties uncannily mirror the ones driving national politics, rock is of course bigger than one gender or one emotion—ask Joan Jett or Courtney Barnett. Bono’s comment got me thinking not just about that lineage of sound and sentiment, but about Chester Bennington, the Linkin Park singer whose suicide a year ago this summer I’ve had very much in mind. But in hindsight, Linkin Park’s trajectory, and Bennington’s, sheds light on an evolving quest for new ways to express vulnerability. The pop landscape that has emerged may bewilder Bono, but space has opened up for male fury in more malleable forms than ever—and such fury seems to be, for better and for worse, in plentiful supply.   “I think music has gotten very girly,” he told Rolling Stone.
Male rage in rock music: Things have changed

Drake’s Scorpion streams a billion times in a week. How much did he make?

So how much money has Drake made just from Scorpion in this week? (Billboard has more facts here.)
Impressive, right? In a week. That’s a good first-week sales number by any measure. The big news in the music industry today is how Drake obliterated all kinds of streaming records with his new album, Scorpion. The voodoo Billboard uses to convert streams into an equivalent number of CDs indicates that we’re looking at 700,000 copies. Scorpion is the first album to be streamed a billion times in a week. If we assume that Drake would have made a buck a CD–we really have no idea since these royalty deals are subject to individual negotiations–that would yield a net of $7 million. And Scorpion has the highest-streamed total for a debut week.   If we stake the average industry payout per stream, which is $0.008 (eight one-hundredths of a cent per stream), that would indicate he’s earned $8 million just from streaming. But how does this to compare to how Scorpion would have fared in the pre-streaming days of the CD? Another thing: Drake has four of the top 10 best-ever streaming weeks. I think it’s safe to say that Drake is fine with living in the streaming world. You might not be a fan of the guy and you might wonder why he insides on released a far-to-long double album, but you can’t argue with success. Drake also set a record for having the most streams by any artist in a given week, having been heard 750 million times.
How much did he make? Drake’s Scorpion streams a billion times in a week.

This article highlights everything that’s wrong with so much of the music industry today. This is too important NOT to read.

This article highlights everything that’s wrong with so much of the music industry today. This is too important NOT to read.
He got in touch with Interscope’s vice chairman, Steve Berman, a name he knew from skits between songs on Eminem records. TMZ reported that Spears’s camp believed that Kluger had been fraudulently acting as her representative and that he pocketed more than 40 percent of the $800,000 sponsorship fee. They tried to beat the middleman.” Spears saw things differently. Over the course of the next several years, Kluger became a kind of sponsored-content hustler, making arrangements between artists and brands: Christina Aguilera and the Oranum psychic hotline, Flo Rida and the porn site Live Jasmin, Jason Derulo and the singles site Plenty of Fish. “I was like, ‘I built this company. He took a vacation to blow off some steam — New York, Costa Rica. (Bumble declined to comment on the record.)
“I was so pissed off at the way that I was treated publicly from it that I decided to quit the music business,” Kluger says. From The New York Times Magazine:
Adam Kluger had a plan to save music. Now, in the era of The Voice other bullshit talent shows, the name of the game is to be rich and famous. Phil” titled “I Want to Give Up My Car-Stealing, Knife-Wielding, Twerking 13-Year-Old Daughter Who Tried to Frame Me for a Crime!”
Read it and weep. If this is the way music is headed, here’s hoping that the Oort Cloud will lob an extinction-level asteroid in your direction very soon. “It was almost a million dollars,” Kluger recalls. It was 2008: Piracy was up, streaming hadn’t taken off and the physical album had long been eclipsed by the digital single. Her lawyers sent a letter threatening to sue. They turned him away, citing artistic integrity. By the time he got back, it was 2017, and he was still pissed off — especially at Bumble. On top of that, it was the middle of the recession; industry people were looking for ways to make up their losses. He peddled the concept to record executives, presenting his plan as a source of easy money. As Kluger saw it, he was just a middleman, taking a cut of the pay in exchange for providing a matchmaking service. “I’m going to pull every trick I’ve ever pulled with brands and make someone into a walking, talking brand to prove my worth.”
As Kluger’s deal was hitting the fan, the web was caught up in a drama of its own over an absurd clip from daytime TV featuring a Florida teenager. Berman wasn’t into brand dropping, but he did need a novel revenue stream to cover the costs of video production. Kluger focused his efforts on younger artists, making the case that taking the cash was not creatively bankrupt but could in fact further their vision. “I was on a flight to L.A. He gave Kluger a list of the label’s new artists; perhaps he could make some suitable arrangements. Kluger was a fast-talking 22-year-old in Los Angeles with a dream of a product he called “brand dropping.” Rappers were constantly name-checking products — why not get the brands to pay for placement in a verse? By the fall of 2016, he was working on one of his biggest deals yet, between Britney Spears and the dating app Bumble. Danielle Bregoli, of Boynton Beach, was a guest on a September 2016 episode of “Dr. At one point in the evolution of popular music, it was about the song, talent and the ability to suck people in with the sounds you and your band could write and perform. And she was aided and abetted by adults looking to make big money. By the end of that summer, he had his first win — a deal between a clothing brand called Vixen’s Visions and a new pop act named Lady Gaga. Nothing exemplifies this empty sort of culture more than Bhad Bhabie, the “cash me ousside” girl who turned being a brat into a career. in November, for the video shoot, and the brand Bumble tried to go around me and go directly through Britney’s lawyers, which doesn’t happen. “I’m going to find something that’s just so obscure, and I’m going to make it popular,” he decided. I helped make this [expletive] popular.’ Then I was like, ‘I can make anything popular.’ ” Kluger hatched another plan, this time to save his own reputation.